Business Basics: Finance

Business Launchpad

The course handouts for your Business Launchpad workshop can be downloaded below.

You can also download this handy page with some key business jargon:


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Tax basics:

  • Class 2 NI contributions are £3.45 per week for 2023-24. (up a lot from £3.15 per week, 2022-23)
  • Class 4 NI is back down to 9%. The planned Health and Social Care Levy has now been abolished.
  • The personal allowance (i.e. free of income tax and NI) is £12,570
  • The higher income tax rate of 40% kicks in after £50,270 (2023-24) for England, Wales and NI. The income tax bands for residents of Scotland are now very different. Check help sheet 3s.
  • VAT threshold is £85,000 from 1 April 2017. So you have to be VAT registered if your turnover in any 12 months hits that level. This threshold has been frozen until at least 2024.
  • The Annual Investment Allowance (to buy kit and machinery) is £1m per year.
  • Corporation Tax is 19% for all Limited Company profits below £50,000 in the year, with a sliding scale up to 25% when profits are over £250,000 per year.

Contacting HMRC

Places to find support if you're a new business:

NB: The New Enterprise Allowance was closed in 2022.

Useful sites to deal with late payers

  • includes an interest calculator
  • info about the legislation
    Late Payment Legislation was introduced in the UK in 1998 and across all EU countries from March 2013.
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For Microsoft Office (Excel and Word) users...

If you need these templates in other formats, please email us at:

Zip logoDownload all MS Office templates together (Zip file)


Or individually:

Budgeting sheets to control spending
Spreadsheet - for personal (not business) spending

NEWSpreadsheet - Monthly budgeting sheet for freelancers

Cash flow planners
Spreadsheet - Cash flow for sole trader/Ltd

Spreadsheet - Cash flow planner incl. household and PAYE income

Business income record sheets
for Sole Traders, Partnerships, or Ltd Companies
Spreadsheet - Income and Expense (Profit and Loss) account for businesses

UPDATEDSpreadsheet - Pay Slip record for PAYE freelancers

Getting paid properly
Template 7 - Invoice. (Or here for a pdf example with notes.)

Handout 13 - Blank project proposal form - with notes

For media freelancers (including payroll freelancers)Simple "Confirmation of Booking" letter - downloads Word doc in new window


For Apple format (Numbers and Pages) users...

Zip logoDownload all Apple format templates together (Zip file)


Or individually:

Budgeting sheets to control spending
Spreadsheet - Personal (non-business) spending

NEWSpreadsheet - Monthly budgeting sheet for freelancers

Cash flow planning sheets
Spreadsheet - Cash flow planning for sole trader/Ltd Company

Spreadsheet - Freelancer cash flow planner with household costs

Business income record sheets
Spreadsheet - Income & Expense (Profit & Loss)

UPDATEDSpreadsheet - Pay slip record for PAYE freelancers

Getting paid
Invoice template

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We often meet trainees who are working in the UK but have moved to the UK from another country.

To check how much tax you might have to pay, have a look at the guidance on the HMRC website. Specifically, it's worth looking at the definitions of:

If you are living and working in another country and supplying to UK companies, this article on Contractor UK might be helpful:

VAT registered, and selling overseas?

If you're VAT registered in the UK you need to be sure whether or not to account for VAT yourself, or whether your client has to account for it.

The rules vary, broadly based on

  • whether the client is based within the EU or not
  • whether they are VAT registered in their own country or not

This is not the place to go into detail - especially as Brexit has complicated things - but you can find out more on HMRC - VAT and Supply of Services

You may well need professional advice from an accountant who is used to working with international clients.


Please note:

Although every effort has been made to provide accurate tips and information, David Thomas Media Ltd accepts no responsibility for any errors, omissions or out-of-date facts. Trainees are advised to seek up-to-date professional advice on all financial and tax matters before making decisions relating to these subjects. Nothing in our notes, courses, webinars, downloads or social media should be considered as financial advice.
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